Entering Scholarly Works and Citations

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The Scholarly Work type is used for all kinds of scholarly writing – journal articles, papers in proceedings, even books can be Scholarly Works. The primary feature of the type is a way to list citations, although there are several other properties as well.


Written work

All written works, including those using the Scholarly Work type, should also have the type Written Work. This type has properties for Author, Subjects, Copyright date, and so on. See Entering Data for All Written Works for more information on using this type.

Journal Articles

One of the most common types of scholarly work is an article published in a journal. These should also use the type Journal Article. The Journal Article type allows you to record the journal the article appeared in, as well as standard bibliographic data such as volume, issue number, issue date, and pages.

Other kinds of Scholarly Works

  • Conference Proceedings: for papers published in a proceedings, add the type Published Work. This will allow you to enter a paper as the contents of a proceedings. (See Entering the Contents of a Book or Periodical for specifics about using the Published Work type.) There is an additional type, Conference Proceedings, which can be added to the book in which the paper was published.
  • Presented Work: for papers that were not published in a proceedings and only presented at an event, add the type Presented Work.
  • Technical Reports: add the type Technical Report to the scholarly work.
  • Books: if this work is a complete book (as opposed to only a portion of the book), you can remove the type Published Work.
  • Unpublished papers: as for books, above.
  • Theses and dissertations: Add the type Dissertation.

Properties of Scholarly Work

  • DOI: the Digital Object Identifier: a unique string used to identify electronic publications
  • Acknowledged people: list any people mentioned by name in the “acknowledgments” (or equivalent) section of the work.
  • Financial support provided by: Institutions that gave financial support to the work, or the research that produced the work, can be listed here. There is also a field to enter a funding identifier number, if known.
  • Keyword: a list of keywords for the work. Please enter each word or phrase on a separate line.
  • Works cited: See below


Entering citations is a multi-step process. It may seem cumbersome (it arguably is cumbersome) but it is also powerful and extremely flexible. Any kind of work can be cited – books, articles, theses, videos, interviews, audio recordings, websites, and so forth – using the Works Cited property.

The property Works cited has an expected type of Cited work. This type has only one property, Cited in, which is simply links back to Scholarly work. The type Cited work is intended to be used in concert with other types: Any appropriate type can be added to a Cited work topic, which will both indicate what kind of work it is (article, book, paper, interview, recording, etc.) and allow you to enter information specific to that kind of work. In this way, one property and type can be used for all citations.

Entering citations

  1. In the Works Cited property, enter the name of the work being cited. Enter the specific work being cited; e.g., if a single paper in a proceedings is being cited, enter the name of the paper, rather than that of the proceedings. Data other than title can be entered in a later step.
  2. You can enter as many as you like at once. After saving the entries, you can click the link for each cited work to add more information about them (author, place of publication, etc., etc.).
  3. Now add the type that corresponds to the kind of thing being cited. Here is a non-exhaustive list of suggested types; if you can't find the type you need, post a note on the discussion board: somebody may be able to help you find it, or we may need to create new types.
    • If the cited work is a scholarly paper in a journal, use Journal Article
    • If the cited work is a scholarly paper in a proceedings or reprinted in a book, use Scholarly Work
    • If the cited work is a dissertation, use Dissertation
    • If the cited work is a book, use Book Edition (note – do not use Book: citations are almost always from a particular edition, and have a specific publisher, date of publication, etc.)
    • If the cited work is an article or essay that appeared in a magazine or book, use Short Non-fiction
    • If the cited work is an interview, use Interview
    • If the cited work is a poem, play, or short story, use the types Poem, Play, and Short Story
    • If the cited work is a translation of a written work of any kind, use Translation
    • If the cited work is a musical recording, use Musical Release or Musical Track
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